Is there any software interface for obtaining detailed information about the individual components of a specific robot? For example, model numbers and serial numbers of the joint motors, safety board, motherborad, etc.?
I am not aware if any public method. Are you looking for a unique ID or what is your need. And can you share your use case?
This is just a research project to find out what subset of the VDMA-40010-1 specification could be possible on UR robots.
One example is the motor serial number: https://reference.opcfoundation.org/v104/Robotics/v100/docs/7.5.1/